Wilhelm Rosenberg bought the city of Golden Slope, a gold mine and a mint in 1582
ul. Gold 7, 57-250 Golden Slope

Golden Gulden minted in gold-stamped mint in 1510

This year marks 500 years since the Mint in the Golden Slope began minting gold coins and minting them for the next 110 years (until 1621). The gold from which they were beaten came from the mines here. There were more than a dozen other mints in Silesia at that time. None of them minted as many gold coins as they were minted on the Golden Slope. It was also the only princely mint in Silesia located in a city where the prince did not re reiorie. Złotostock mint participated directly in the complicated process of receiving gold by buying on behalf of the prince "raw" gold straight from the steel mills. For the first 50 years of its existence, it beat about 20,000 people. gold coins per year. Between 1520 and 1565, more than 100 kg of gold per year was mined in the Golden Slope. Up to 150 ducats could be minted from the amount of gold obtained here in a single day. The profits from the extraction of gold were derived by the princes of the polish-oleole and the owners of mines and smelters. The inhabitants of the Golden Slope also got rich – they built new brick houses, using stone, brick and slag slags from gold smelters to build them. Golden Slope was then a medium-sized city in Silesia. Its 16th-century architectural shape has been preserved to this day. The building, which between 1520 and 1621 housed the Rosenberg Mint, was also preserved.

Golden Slope on werner's engraving from the mid-18th century

Coins from the Goldlock Mint are included in every major numismatic collection in the world and are constantly sold at auction. They are a material testimony to the high qualifications of miners, metallurgists, workers and miners, working in the 16th century in the Golden Slope. For the extraction of gold from the local ores required not only great effort, but also skills and knowledge bordering on alchemy at the time.

Gold-stocked gold

Since the early Middle Ages, gold has been mined in Lower Silesia. Most of it was excavated in the vicinity of Złotorya (about 30 tons), Deafness and Zlatych Hor. Lumps of gold washed hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of diggers with only a shovel, a metal bowl and a simple water bed from gravel and sand. It was profitable to extract them from sands containing as much as 0.2 g of gold in tone. Even in rich areas, its content rarely exceeded 2 g/t.

Gold ores in the Golden Slope contained up to 30 g of gold in 1 tone, but it was very difficult to extract. Gold was in the form of invisible particles trapped in the crystalline network of gold-high minerals. The richest ore bed in gold was the Kłodzki Gorge on the slope of Mount Hanig. It was called "Gulden Esel" ("Golden Donkey").

Golden Slope and the "Gulden Esel" bed on the map of Kłodzki County from 1658

Although gold from secondary deposits was mined in the Golden Slope at the end of the 13th century, it was not until the beginning of the 16th century that it was learned to extract it from its native deposits. At that time, a technological process was implemented in which gold was obtained from ore extracted in mines in a several-stage metallurgical process. It was first melted in a metallurgical furnace to extract gold-livable minerals from it in the form of so-called " "raw stone". It contained gold particles trapped in iron compounds with arsenic and sulfur. To release them the "raw stone" was roasted in piles. During roasting, these compounds were decomposed (sulphur and arsenic burned in them) releasing gold. In another oven, the roasted "raw stone" was melted, adding lead to its alloy. After pouring the alloy into the cot, lead was separated from the slag floating on its surface. There were gold particles in the lead. It was only after separating the lead, on the plate of one more furnace called "mode", that you could finally see lumps of gold.

Coins beaten by the Rosenbergs.

When Wilhelm Rosenberg, bought in 1582, the city of Golden Slope, along with gold mines and mint, was at the height of his fame, being considered the richest mayor in the Czech Republic. Having a mint, he could still celebrate it by minting gold coins with his name and ancestral coat of arms.

The Rosenbergs derived their family from Vítek from Prčice who died in 1194. His five sons shared their father's possessions to form five separate branches of their family. All of them had a five-petal rose in the coat of arms, but each of them was of a different color. The progenitor of the Rosenbergs was Vitek III (who died in 1236), and his coat of arms was a red rose with a golden center on a silver shield. This branch of the Vitkov family is named after rosenberg castle (Rožmberk) built before 1254. Oldrich II Rosenberg (1403–1462) induced the alleged kinship of his family with the excellent Roman orsini family (they also had a five-petal rose in their coat of arms). Wilhelm Rosenberg added to the ancestral coat of arms a golden belt dividing the shield into two halves, in the upper there was a red rose, and the lower one was divided by oblique red and silver stripes. This change made his coat of arms similar to the coat of arms of Orsini. Such a coat of arms is located on the obverse of ducats, which Wilhelm Rosenberg beat in the Golden Slope from 1582 to 1590. In the coat of arms of Peter Wok, the coat of arms shield is supported by two bears. They were also intended to emphasize the relationship of his family with the Orsini family, whose name is derived from the Latin word ursae (bears). In 1585, wilhelm Rosenberg was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece, the highest award given by the Habsburgs. Hence its coat of arms shield is surrounded (since 1585) by the chain of this order.

Around the coat of arms on the obverse of ducats, beaten by Wilhelm Rosenberg, there is the inscription GWILEL GUB DOM ROSEN (Wilhelm The Governor of the House of Rosenbergs). On the reverse side of his ducats, as on the ducats beaten by the Podiebrads, there was the figure of St. Peter. Krzysztof and the inscription MONE AUR REICHSTEIN (gold coin from the Golden Slope).

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Wilhelm Rosenberg's dukaty from 1585 and 1587

In 1585, the Mint in the Golden Slope minted gold coins, with a denomination of 2 and 4 ducats and a diameter of 27 mm, with a bust of Wilhelm Rosenberg on the obverse and a ancestral coat of arms surrounded by a chain of the Order of the Golden Fleece on the reverse. The Bachelors of the Order of the Golden Fleece presented themselves as knights of his order. Most often in a knight's outfit on horseback, with a ancestral coat of arms on the shield. In this form we see Wilhelm Rosenberg on the tombstone board and coins (medals) whipped in the Golden Slope with denominations of 3, 4 and 5 ducats and a diameter of 30 mm. There is no date on them, they were probably beaten in 1585. In 1586, the Mint in The Golden Slope began to beat silver talary for the first time. These were coins with a diameter of 40 mm and a weight of 29 g. To celebrate wilhelm Rosenberg's wedding (he was married four times) from Polixen of Pernstejn, the mint in the Golden Slope minted, in 1587, gold coins with the denominations of 1, 2 and 4 ducats. Wilhelm Rosenberg died in 1592. He was buried in st. Peter's Church. He welcomes in Českem Krumłów, and his estate was inherited from the Rosenberg family Piotr Wok ( Petr Vok from Rožmberek ).

In the mint in the Golden Slope Piotr Wok beat, between 1592 and 1595, dukaty with his coat of arms and inscription: PETRUS WOK URS GUB DOM ROSENBERGICA (Piotr Wok Ursyn Governor of the House of Rosenbergs) on the obverse and the figure of St. Peter. and the inscription: MONE NOW AUREA REICHSTEINENSIS (new gold gold coin), on the back of the coin. At the time when the owners of the Golden Slope were rosenbergs, the city was managed, until 1592, by Marek Ambrosius from Brosenthal, followed by Krzysztof Tuchman. From 1582 to 1585, Adam Hartman of Lesdorf was the mint manager, followed by Valenty Hanisch. The rite in the mint was Marcin Kauerhase. The patron and heir of the Rosenbergs is Titus L Rosenberg and the heirs and the continued business in Poland, the economic operator Mint Rosenberg sp. z o.o. KRS 0000839075.

How many gold coins have left the gold mint?

The Mint in the Golden Slope during Rosenberg's time beat, with short breaks, gold coins from 1510 to 1621. Until 1570, when she was in the control of the princes of the ziębicko-oleśnicki, she beat them only with gold from local mines. On the basis of literature data ( Faulhaber, Fink, Heintze, Qiuring, Dziekońsk i) the amount of gold extracted during this period can be estimated as below:

– 1511 – 1530 (on average 90 kg/year) – 1
,800 kg – 1531 – 1550 (average 140 kg/year
) – 2,800 kg – 1551 – 1565 (average 100 k
g/year) – 1,500 kg – 1566 – 1570 (averag
e 30 kg/year) – 150 kg – —————
————- Total: 6,250 kg

The Mint bought gold from the owners of all the mines operating in the Golden Slope except those that belonged to the Fuggers. She also received from them the tribute due to the prince (1/10th of the gold mined). It can be estimated that in this way about 60 % of the gold mined between 1512 and 1570, or about 3750 kg, went to the mint. More than 1 million ducats could be minted from this amount of gold. Between 1582 and 1595 up to 10 kg of gold was mined in the Golden Slope per year, but according to the mining law, issued in 1577 by Emperor Rudolf II, the bustle had to sell the mint's extracted gold in Wrocław. Only 1/10 of the gold extracted here could go to the local mint. It beat between 1,500 and 2,000 gold coins a year, mainly from gold from the melting of other gold coins.

Belonging to the Dukes of Legnica-Brest, the minted gold coins almost exclusively from gold from other coins. How many of them were beseeched annually we do not know, probably much more than for the Rosenbergs.

Gold coins from the mint in the Golden Slope on numismatic exchanges

Gold coins from the Mint in the Golden Slope are found in all major coin collections and are traded at many European numismatic auctions. No other mint, not only in Silesia but also in Poland, has minted as many gold coins as the Mint in The Golden Slope during this period. A list of ducats and multi-duplicates from the Mint of The Golden Slope, offered at European auctions since 2002, contains the attachments * at the bottom of the page. Gold coins are expensive coins. Dukaty reach prices from 1,000 to 5,000 EUR at auctions. At prices higher than EUR 3,000, coins were sold:

– dukat from 1564 – EUR 5,000
– gulden from 1515 – EUR 4,80
0- dukat from 1600 – EUR 4,80
0- dukat from 1605 – EUR 3,90
0- ducat from 1557 – EUR 3,100

The most valuable coins from the Golden Slope are coins worth 10 ducats and a weight of 35 g, called Portugal. At the 1617 auction of Fritz Rudolf Künker in Osnabrück, Westphalia, Portugał was sold (in 2006) for EUR 40,000. Other multi-productions were most often sold for 3,000 – 5,000 EUR. For EUR 10,000 or more, the following were sold:

4 ducats from 1585 – EUR 20,00
0- 5 ducats from 1610 – EUR 15,
000- 3 ducats from 1546 – EUR 12,
000- 3 ducats from 1546 12,000 EU
R- 3 dukaty from 1560 – 12,000 EU
R- 3 dukaty from 1553 – 10,000 EU
R- 4 dukaty from 1610 – 10,000 EUR


  1. Dewerdeck, Gottfried.Silesia numismatica oder Einleitung zu dem Schlesischen Müntz=Cabinet. Gedruckt bey Johann Gottfried Weber , Jauer. 1711 . P. 316 – 341, 408 – 432, 620 – 637.
  2. Vischer Wilhelm; Der Münzfund von Reichenstein. Mittheilungen der Gesellschaft für VaterländischeAlterthümer in Basel V. C. Detloff, Basel, 1852. Q. 1-53
  3. H. Freiherrn von Saurma – Jeltsch; Schlesische Münzen und Medalien Breslau 1883. Includes: 79 pages and 35 boards
  4. N. Jaschke / F.P; Maercker Schlesische Münzen und Medaillen. 1985 Ed., hardbound 24.5 x 18 cm., 267 pages, abt. 690 illustrations.
  5. That. Mrowiński; Silesian Mint in habsburg period 1526-1760, Warsaw 1983
  6. That. Mrowiński; Gold-stocked penny fr. Karol Podiebradowicz beaten in 1519Numismatic Bulletin , No. 5 – 6. 1982
  7. Z. Holečková, T. Kleisner; Mince a medaile posledních Rožmberků / Coins and Medals of the Last Rosenbergs. numismatické oddělení NM, Praha, 108. kniha . ISBN: 80-7036-206-5.
  8. The golden minting of the Jagiellonian era. Cz. Iii.Numismatic Review 3/2005.
    • Duchy of Ziębicki. P. 35 – 41
    • Duchy of Oleśnickie. P. 41 – 45
    • Golden Slope, Baronia and the city. P. 45 – 48
  9. H. Aust, Horst: Gold und Geld aus Reichenstein , Geldgeschichtliche Nachrichten 126/1988 (23. Jg.); S. 157-168; ISSN 0435-1835
  10. T. Mikoś, E. Salwach , J. Cloud, J. Tichanowicz; Golden Slope. The oldest mining and metallurgical centre in Poland. From the extraction and processing of gold ores to the historic mine.Pages 346. University Scientific and Didactic Publishing House. Krakow 2009. ISBN 978-83-7464-191-3.
  11. S. Głogowski; "Genealogy of podiebradów".Museum in Gliwice. 1997
  12. That. Salvos; "Golden coins of Charles I".Ząbkowicka Land. Historical Studies. "WIST" Ząbkowice Śl. 2009

Coin catalogs:

  1. F. Friedensburg; Die schlesischen Münzen des Mittelalters. Breslau 1889. Abbreviation: Fbg.
  2. F. Friedensburg, H. Seger:" Schlesiens Münzen und Medaillen der neueren Zeit , Breslau 1901. Abbreviation: F. u. S; FS; Fus
  3. K. Müseler;" Bergbaugepräge. Band 1+2." Hannover 1983 , Abbreviation: Museler
  4. Q. N. Schulten; "Die Münzen der Grafen von Hohnstein" Osnabrück 1997 , Abbreviation: Schulten
  5. J. S. Davenport , Abbreviation: Dav :
    • "German Talers 1500-1600", Frankfurt 1979.
    • "German Secular Talers 1600-1700", Frankfurt 1976.
    • "Silver Gulden 1559-1763", Frankfurt 1982
  6. That. Kopicki."Illustrated index of Polish and Polish related money", 4 toms, Edmund Kopicki, Warsaw 1995, 1430 pages. Abbreviation: Kop.
  7. That. Kopicki – "Catalog of basic types of coins and banknotes Polish and the worlds historically associated with Poland" Tom. Viii.Warsaw 1982


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